What’s the difference between a hub, a switch, and a router?

In a word, intelligence.
Hubs, switches and routers, allowing you to connect one or more computers to other computers, network equipment, or even all of the other network equipment. Each two or more connectors have called your cable inserted therein, the connection port. Varying degrees of magic happen inside the device hidden differences. I often see the terms of abuse, let’s clarify the true meaning of each person.

Hub
Hubs are usually the cheapest, smartest, most sophisticated three. Its job is very simple – come in a port to be sent to any other people.
Only.
If the message incoming PC “A”, the message is sent to all other ports, regardless of what a computer “A” is:

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When the computer in response to “A”, which is also a response out every other port on the hub:

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Each computer connected to a hub of the “discovery” Everything all the other computers on the hub to see. Computer decide if their message when the message should be taken seriously or not to accept the target.
Ignorance is the hub itself hidden data to be transmitted. Over the years, the hub is simple and quick and easy way, in a small computer network connections.

Switch

The nature of the switch is to be a hub of what has been done, but more effective. Note that came through traffic at both ends, it can “learn” where specific address Yes.
Initially, the switch know nothing, except that the incoming message to all ports:

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Even accepting that the first message, however, the switch learned something – it knows which connection the sender message lies. Therefore, when the machine “A” response message, the switch only needs to send a message to a connection:

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In addition to sending a response to the originating switch now I learned something else – it now knows which machines are connected position “A” of.
This means that the message is destined to follow the machine “A” only needs to be sent to a port:

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Switch that they are connected to an almost instantaneous location of the device. The end result is that most network traffic reaches only need it, rather than for each port. In a busy network, which allows the network significantly faster.
Router

Router is the smartest, most sophisticated group. Routers come in all shapes and sizes – from small popular four broadband router, and now the Internet to promote their own large industrial strength equipment.
Think of a router is a simple method that can be programmed to understand, may be operating a computer and route it were required to process the data. Today, many routers, in fact, a small computer dedicated to the task of routing network traffic.
As simple transport routes, the router work exactly the same switch, connecting and routing traffic, only those computers to learn the location of the computer.
Consumer-level router with the lowest two additional and important implementation
Task: DHCP and NAT.
DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol – is dynamically assigned IP addresses. A device requires an IP address is assigned from the “upstream” and DHCP server give it an IP address assignment response. Connected to the ISP provides Internet connection usually ask the router IP address of your ISP’s server; this will be the IP address on the Internet. Your local computer, on the other hand, will require the IP address of the router, and these addresses are local to the network.

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This means that malicious software may attempt to independently connect to your computer can not be transmitted on the network.

All routers contain some user interface to configure the router how to deal with traffic. Really large router includes a full-fledged programming language equivalent to describe how they should communicate with other routers to describe or determine the best way to gain the ability to network traffic from point A to point B in the works, and

Note on speed
On quick notes, you will often see these devices mentioned, this is the network speed is one thing. Most devices are now able to both 10Mbps (10 megabits, or million bits per second) and 100Mbps, and will automatically detect the speed.
More and more devices are now capable of handling a 1000 Mbps or gigabit per second (1Gbps) is.
Similarly, many devices are now wireless transmitter, simply like any other port on the device.